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SURFACE PREPARATION - Substrates A - N

Key:
AA=Anaerobic CA=Cyanoacrylate ET=2-Part Epoxy ES=Heat-Cure Epoxy MS=MS-Polymer
TA=Structural Acrylic PT=Two-Part Polyurethane UV-Curable

ABS can be bonded “as received” so no surface preparation required. Most PB grades suitable, if using AA use A905. ES may not be suitable as plastic may melt. UV will require a clear substrate.
ACETAL can be very difficult to bond; abrading the surface can help. AA- Use A905. Best option is a CA with POP Primer.
ACRYLIC can be bonded “as received” so no surface preparation required. Most PB grades suitable, if using AA use A905. ES may not be suitable as plastic maymelt. UV will require a clear substrate.
ALUMINIUM Several options - The most effective is to immerse the aluminium in phosphoric acid etch solution for 30 minutes, rinse, dry and then bond immediately. However, health and safety restrictions imposed may prevent the preparation and storage of such chemicals.
Alternatively:
Degrease with Isopropanol, Acetone or Permabond Cleaner A. Do not use white spirits, meths etc. as these can leave a residue.
Abrade with carborundum grit paper or if you have access to a grit or sand blaster, abrade the aluminium with fresh grit or sand.
Degrease the aluminium a second time and then bond immediately.
It is important to degrease before and after abrasion to avoid ingraining dirt and contaminants into the metal and to remove any loose particles and dirt afterwards. Aluminium forms a weak invisible oxide layer very quickly so bond ASAP. Low strength bonds on aluminium can usually be attributed to this oxide layer.
AA cure on aluminium can be slow so A905 may be required. If bonding to a different metal consider F201 or F202 flexible grade to cope with differential expansion.
ET, ES and TA particularly good for bonding aluminium. TA4300 and TA4310 are particular
favourites on this substrate, also ES550 performs very well on aluminium.
UV can be used but other substrate needs to be clear (unless using a dual cure product
such as UV7141).
PT and MS products also work well on aluminium.
BRASS Degrease with isopropanol, acetone or Permabond Cleaner A. Do not use white spirits, meths etc. as
these can leave a residue.
Abrade with carborundum grit paper or if you have access to a grit or sand blaster, abrade the brass with
fresh grit or sand. Degrease the brass a second time and then bond immediately.
It is important to degrease before and after abrasion to avoid ingraining dirt and contaminants into the metal and to remove any loose particles and dirt afterwards.
Brass can be etched with 25% ammonium persulphate solution to give a very good surface for bonding.
AA, ET, ES, TA, PT, all very good on brass. CA and MS are OK. UV can be used but other
substrate needs to be clear (unless using a dual cure product such as UV7141).
BUTYL RUBBER Wipe clean with isopropanol or Permabond Cleaner A to remove any processing lubricants and slip additives. Permabond cyanoacrylates all work brilliantly on butyl rubber. The bonded joint is generally stronger than the parent material. Only cyanoacrylates can be considered on this surface.
CARBON FIBRE Lightly abrade surface with Scotchbrite or carborundum paper. Degrease with isopropanol or suitable solvent. Surface should be clean and dry before bonding.
CA, ET, MT, MS, ES, PT all work well on this substrate. Specialist grades available.
CAST IRON Remove large particles of rust and debris with a wire brush or wire wool.
Degrease with isopropanol, Acetone or Permabond Cleaner A. Do not use white spirits, meths etc. as these can leave a residue. Abrade with carborundum grit paper or if you have access to a grit or sand blaster, abrade the cast iron with fresh grit or sand. Degrease the cast iron a second time and then bond immediately. It is important to degrease before and after abrasion to avoid ingraining dirt and contaminants into the metal and to remove any loose particles and dirt afterwards. Rust spots are the visible sign of surface oxidation on iron. It is important to bond ASAP after preparing the surface to prevent re-oxidation. AA, ET, ES, all work well. If using CA then use 910 methyl grade for better durability and higher strength bond.
CERAMIC Glaze should be removed by abrasion or gritblasting, loose particles should then be removed. Degrease with isopropanol or suitable solvent. Surface should be clean and dry before bonding. ET, ES or TA would be best choice. AA would need A905 activator. CA durability could be poor.
CHROME Degrease with isopropanol, Acetone or Permabond Cleaner A. Do not use white spirits, meths etc. as these can leave a residue. Bonding chrome can be difficult because of its mirror-finish ultra-smooth surface. AA HM163 or HM135 are recommended for use on this surface.
COMPOSITE Lightly abrade surface with Scotchbrite or carborundum paper. Degrease with isopropanol or suitable solvent. Surface should be clean and dry before bonding.
CA, ET, MT, MS, ES, PT all work well on this substrate. Specialist grades available.
CONCRETE Remove large particles of dust and debris with a stiff brush. Ensure surfaces are as dry and clean as possible and free of oil. High viscosity ET or an MS would be most suitable for this surface.
COPPER Degrease with isopropanol, acetone or Permabond Cleaner A. Do not use white spirits, meths etc. as these can leave a residue. Abrade with carborundum grit paper or if you have access to a grit or sand blaster, abrade the copper with fresh grit or sand. Degrease the copper a second time and then bond immediately.
It is important to degrease before and after abrasion to avoid ingraining dirt and contaminants into the metal and to remove any loose particles and dirt afterwards. Copper can be etched with 25% ammonium persulphate solution to give a very good surface for bonding.
AA, ET, ES, TA, PT, all very good on copper. CA and MS are OK. UV can be used but other substrate needs to be clear (unless using a dual cure product such as UV7141).
CORIAN Lightly abrade surface with Scotchbrite or carborundum paper. Degrease with isopropanol or suitable solvent. Surface should be clean and dry before bonding. ET is an excellent choice. Also TA, PT & MS are good. CA can be used if necessary. AA and ES are not suitable.
CRP Lightly abrade surface with Scotchbrite or carborundum paper. Degrease with isopropanol
or suitable solvent. Surface should be clean and dry before bonding. CA, ET, MT, MS, ES, PT all work well on this substrate. Specialist grades available.
DIAMOND Degrease with isopropanol or suitable solvent. Surface should be clean and dry before bonding.
UV recommended to give clear, non-yellowing bond. For diamond tipped tools, ES550 is normally used.
EPDM RUBBER Wipe clean with isopropanol or suitable solvent. Options for bonding EPDM are quite limited as EPDM can be a bit difficult to bond. Permabond POP Primer and CA (normally the 105 would be recommended). Other adhesive
technologies are generally unsuitable and will not bond EPDM rubber very well.
FERRITE Degrease with isopropanol or suitable solvent. Surface should be clean and dry before
bonding. TAs are first choice with rapid room temp cure, good impact and temperature resistance. CA - 737 can be used. ES products can also be recommended.
FORMICA Lightly abrade surface with Scotchbrite or carborundum paper. Degrease with isopropanol
or suitable solvent. Surface should be clean and dry before bonding. ET is an excellent choice. Also TA, PT & MS are good. CA can be used if necessary. AA and ES products are not suitable.
FRP Lightly abrade surface with Scotchbrite or carborundum paper. Degrease with isopropanol
or suitable solvent. Surface should be clean and dry before bonding. CA, ET, MT, MS, ES, PT all work well on this substrate. Specialist grades available. Galvanized Zinc
GALVANISED ZINC can be quite a difficult surface to bond. It is difficult to remove the galvanised layer (as it is designed to protect the metal underneath). Bonding with a rubber toughened or slightly flexible adhesive can offer better results. Degrease with isopropanol, acetone or Permabond Cleaner A. Do not use white spirits, meths etc. as these can leave a residue. Flexible grades perform better. 737, TA435, MS, MT, PT products are all recommended.
GLASS Degrease with Permabond Cleaner A or isopropanol. Glass can have a very thin layer of processing lubricant so it is important to degrease. UV first choice for clarity and strength. MS359CLEAR can be used. TA will bond glass but the joint will be visible, ET should be used with 2K Primer first. CA durability is poor.
GRP Lightly abrade surface with Scotchbrite or carborundum paper. Degrease with isopropanol
or suitable solvent. Surface should be clean and dry before bonding. CA, ET, MT, MS, ES, PT products all work well on this substrate. Specialist grades available.
GYPROCK Remove large particles of dust and debris with a stiff brush. Ensure surfaces are as dry and clean as possible and free of oil. MS first choice, particularly for large panels. ET or pre-mix TA could also be used.
HDPEThese polyolefin materials can prove challenging to bond due to their low surface energy.Unfortunately these substrates are very common due to their low cost and availability and frequently require bonding. Pretreat – corona, plasma or flame treat prior to bonding. Surface reactivity will decrease over time so bond ASAP after treating. Permabond POP + CA (e.g. 105 or 2050) gives best results. Other adhesive technologies require significant pre-treatment. POP does not work with technology other than CA.
LAMINATE Lightly abrade surface with Scotchbrite or carborundum paper. Degrease with isopropanol or suitable solvent. Surface should be clean and dry before bonding. ET is an excellent choice. Also TA, PT & MS are good. CA can be used if necessary. AA and ES are not suitable.
LCP Best results can be achieved bonding LCP with UV adhesive - this gives a very high
strength, durable and aesthetically pleasing bond. Alternatively any of the cyanoacrylate range can be used. Use UV for best results. CA will also bond LCP well.
LDPE These polyolefin materials can prove challenging to bond due to their low surface energy.
Unfortunately these substrates are very common due to their low cost and availability and
frequently require bonding. Pretreat – corona, plasma or flame treat prior to bonding. Surface reactivity will decrease over time so bond ASAP after treating. Permabond POP + CA (e.g. 105 or 2050) gives best results. Other adhesive technologies require significant pre-treatment. POP does not work with technology other than CA.
MAGNET Degrease with isopropanol or suitable solvent. Surface should be clean and dry before bonding. TA products are first choice with rapid room temp cure, good impact and temperature resistance. CA - 737 can be used. ES products can also be recommended although magnetism can be weakened during the heat cure process.
MARBLE Remove large particles of dust and debris with a stiff brush. Ensure surfaces are as dry and clean as possible and free of oil. ET would be first choice, PT or MS could also be used. Beware no-Mix TAs - initiator staining on porous marble (pre-mix TAs are OK).
MDF Lightly abrade surface with Scotchbrite or Carborundum paper. Degrease with isopropanol or suitable solvent. Surface should be clean and dry before bonding.
ET is an excellent choice. Also TA, PT & MS also work well. CA can be used (and CSA activator if necessary). AA and ES are not suitable.
MILD STEEL Degrease with isopropanol, Acetone or Permabond Cleaner A. Do not use white spirits, meths etc. as these can leave a residue. Abrade with carborundum grit paper or if you have access to a grit or sand blaster, abrade the mild steel with fresh grit or sand. Degrease the mild steel a second time and then bond immediately. It is important to degrease before and after abrasion to avoid ingraining dirt and contaminants into the metal and to remove any loose particles and dirt afterwards. Rust spots are the visible sign of surface oxidation on mild steel. It is important to bond ASAP after preparing the surface to prevent re-oxidation. AA, CA, ET, ES, MS, MT, PT, TA can be used. UV is also suitable providing the second substrate is clear or it
is a dual cure grade.
NATURAL RUBBER Wipe clean with isopropanol or suitable solvent. Options for bonding natural rubber are quite limited as it can be a bit difficult to bond. Permabond 105 cyanoacrylate is recommended. Other adhesive technologies are generally unsuitable and will not bond natural rubber very well.
NITRILE RUBBER Can be bonded “as received” or if you wish, wipe clean with isopropanol or a suitable solvent. Permabond cyanoacrylates all work brilliantly on nitrile rubber and will bond to such a high strength that the substrate will break before the bond does on destructive tests.
Any Permabond CA.
NYLON Dry out at 60°C for several hours or overnight. Unfilled Nylon doesn’t usually bond well,
glass filled is much better. Abrade surface to allow extra mechanical bonding. Degrease with isopropanol AA- Activate with A905. CA - long term durability is poor. TA, ET, PT or MS can all be considered.

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